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What are the models for the future operation of smart cities?

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With the continuous development of human society, the future city will carry more and more people. At present, China is in the period of accelerating urbanization, and the problem of 'urban disease' in some areas is becoming increasingly serious. In order to solve the urban development problem and realize the sustainable development of the city, building a smart city has become an irreversible historical trend of urban development in today's world.


1. Government-owned network construction operation mode


The government's sole proprietorship construction mode is a kind of smart city operation mode that is more commonly applied. Under this model, the government does not rely on operators, but uses its own funds and relies on the technical means at its disposal to make the whole intelligent construction as a whole. Planning, independent investment, and post-operational maintenance work are mainly used to provide services to municipal authorities, units, and the public. In the process, the government can outsource design, construction, and operations to other companies. In this model, after the government investment network is completed, the network capacity capacity of the public service part of the government agency and related units is first guaranteed, and then the remaining capacity is leased to the network service provider to obtain profits in this way. The advantage of the government's investment in building a network alone is that the municipal government can control the use of the network and its business model. It does not require complicated business negotiations and negotiations. At the same time, the government can strictly control the project and conduct in-depth supervision of the operation process. Under this model, the municipal government's own network needs can be fully satisfied.In order to be used in areas such as smart government and public safety. The shortcomings of this model are also very obvious. First, the government needs to bear the full cost of investing in the construction of the network, which will impose a huge economic burden on the government, and must have strong financial strength to ensure; second, the government must undertake investment. Risk, the municipal government specializes in investing in the construction of the network from the finance, and bears the full cost of network operation and maintenance, which is very risky for the municipal government departments lacking network operation experience; third, the government is responsible for the network by itself. The operation and maintenance require the government to have the ability to build and operate. This is very difficult for the government departments. It is often necessary to invest a dedicated manpower to take charge of this work.


2. Government investment, operator network construction operation mode

This model means that during the entire network construction process, the government is led and responsible for the main investment, and the operator provides relevant support to the government, for example, the operator's existing backbone network can be used, and at the same time, the operator is responsible for the network. Operation and maintenance work. This mode of operation is very beneficial to users. They can use the network free of charge most of the time and place, and the corresponding cost is paid by the municipal department. At this time, it can compensate the operator's operating cost and ensure the free use of the network by citizens. Rights, at least zero deposits can be made when logging on to websites of government agencies and other organizations. The advantage of government investment and entrusting operators to build a network operation mode is firstly to ensure the government's supervision and initiative on the network, and to ensure sufficient network capacity for the government's public functions;Secondly, the operator has built a lot of infrastructure before, accumulated a wealth of relevant construction and operation experience, and has a large number of loyal users, technicians, etc., these existing resources can be fully utilized, saving costs; again, The construction and operation of the network will be handed over to the operators to ensure that the government and operators can do their own advantages, ensure the security of investment network construction, reduce business risks and increase revenue. The shortcomings of this model are: First, the government still has to bear the cost of network construction, and its financial pressure is still very large; second, although the network construction task is undertaken by the operator, the government is still the dominant party, once the project has problems The government still needs to bear the corresponding risks. Third, because the project is led by the government, the operator has less control over product planning and development, which may reduce the utilization of its original advantages.


3. Government and operator joint venture network operation mode

The so-called joint venture network construction model mainly involves the division of labor, coordination and cooperation between the two entities. When the smart city construction is started, the government must invest the necessary funds to carry out some preliminary infrastructure construction. Formulate relevant policies and laws and regulations to ensure the overall good environment for construction and operation. Operators will fully participate in the whole project after the start of the whole project, and use the existing advantages to carry out the later construction, operation and maintenance with the support of the government. This model is a combination of the first, the first is the government to pay for the purchase of the network required to ensure public services, the operator provides paid services, but the public enjoys the fee-free service, followed by other network capacity operated by the operator For profit, operators can earn market revenue and achieve profitability through advertising revenue and other forms of service provision. Government guidance (partial investment), the advantages of the operator's investment network construction operation mode include: First, the government has saved funds for investment in network construction, and only needs to pay part of the funds for purchasing public services, and the financial pressure is small;Second, the investment and construction of the network are all the responsibility of the operators. The government only provides support and the risk is small for the government. Third, the operators can achieve the government supervision and business operations through flexible allocation of investment and income models. Balance, not only to ensure the needs of public services, but also to achieve project profitability; Fourth, operators have great control over the entire facility and network, so they will actively participate in the project process, and strive to increase customer retention and increase loyalty. This model also has a big drawback, that is, operators should carefully consider all cooperative enterprises and coordination processes to ensure that they minimize the business risks they bear; secondly, the recovery of investment funds depends largely on selling commercials. Services and the provision of value-added services, the payback period of the investment may be extended.


4, the government takes the lead, the operator builds the network model

The model did not emerge with the introduction of smart cities. As an infrastructure investment, construction and management method, it has already been applied in the field of government-enterprise cooperation. The model is based on an agreement between the government and the private sector. The government issues special permits to the private sector, allowing self-financing to build an infrastructure and manage and operate the facility and corresponding products and services for a certain period of time. After the expiration of the period, the government will recover all the rights of the project facilities and supporting facilities without compensation. The mode of profitability is based on the previous time-based charging. Since the operator has the right to operate the entire facility for a period of time, the operator can provide users with multiple paid packages and services to make profits, and the turnover. The ratio of one to 30% is used by operators to pay management fees to the government.The government takes the lead. The advantage of the operator's network construction model lies in the fact that in the process of investing in network construction, the government rarely participates in specific affairs. Therefore, the investment and risks undertaken by the government are very small, and almost all financial pressures and investment risks are caused by The operator will bear. The most obvious shortcoming is that the pressure on the operator is too large in this mode. At the same time, because the operator only has the franchise of the network for a period of time, it is difficult to ensure that the investment can be smoothly recovered and profitable, and the operation cannot be fully mobilized. The enthusiasm of commercial investment construction and development.


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